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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Argentina 07: 1946-1968

Nazi friendly Perón government - neo-Nazism and anti-Semitism in Argentina - Jewish organizations and Zionist schooling - aliyah to Zionist racist Herzl-Israel and return - integration in everyday life - the census of 1960 and its errors - Jewish banks coming up - Jewish agricultural settlements not so Jewish any more - Zionist and anti-Zionist schools and problems - relations between Argentina and racist Zionist Herzl Israel

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

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-- Argentina; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 3
-- Neo-Nazism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

[1946-1955: Perón government with Nazi friendly policy]

[[History]]. 1946-1968. Juan Perón's accession to power prompted serious fears among the Jewish population because he had been aided by the Fascist organization Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista [[National Liberty Alliance]] and was known to sympathize with the Nazi government in Germany. The establishment of the Registry of Non-Catholic Cults and the introduction of Catholic religious instruction in the public schools increased these fears. Growing concern was partially dispelled by the introduction of a special clause (Clause 28) in the new constitution on March 16, 1949, forbidding racial discrimination and by Perón's declaration of sympathy for the rights of the Jews and for the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel.

Anti-Semitic attacks continued, however, and Buenos Aires became a center for anti-Semitic publications and neo-Nazi activity on an international scale. Jewish immigration was stopped entirely, while Argentina welcomed thousands of Nazis and their collaborators escaping from Europe.

[[The Nazi refugees escaped from the war trials. "Neutral" Swiss diplomats brought the money of the Nazis in the attaché case. But the war trials themselves were not very "neutral", and collaboration of the "USA" with Third Reich against Soviet Union was completely concealed]].

The protests of the D.A.I.A. [[Delegations of Israelite Argenine Associations, Spanish: Delegacion de Asociaciones Israelitas Argentinas]] and the efforts of the pro-Peronist Organización Israelita Argentina [[Israelite Argentinian Organization]], based on Clause 28, were only partially successful.> (col. 416)

[Neo-Nazism in Argentina]
(from: Neo-Nazism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12)

<Argentina figured prominently in the Nazis' plans to save the movement and themselves after defeat. This tied in well with President Peron's dreams of Argentinian hegemony based on a modernized army and an independent armament industry, which the Nazi experts were to develop. Nazis headed nuclear research institutes, while World War II air aces like Rudel and Galland advised the Argentinian air force and Professor Tank, a German jet designer, started an Argentinian aircraft industry.

Eichmann and his aides (Klingenfuss, Rademacher, and Dr. Mengele) found sanctuary, while Johannes von Leers, head of an anti-Jewish department in Goebbels's Propaganda Ministry, became Peron's adviser. Moreover, the Nazi gospel continued to be preached in German in Der Weg (Buenos Aires) [["The Path"]] and other Duerer Verlag publications.

[Neo-Nazis changing from Argentina to Egypt]

After Peron's fall (1955), some of these fugitives moved to Egypt (a Nazi sanctuary since 1945), where military needs and anti-Israel, anti-Semitic resentments offered them scope. [[...]]

[ER.H.]> (col. 956)

[1955: Anti-Semitism after Perón's fall - 1960s: anti-Semitism because of the Eichmann case - condemnation of anti-Semitism 1961 - prohibition of anti-Semitic organizations in 1963]

The overthrow of Perón (September 1955) was accompanied by an increase in anti-Semitic activities, especially by such anti-Semitic movements as Tacuara and its various factions, which were further augmented after the capture of Adolf *Eichmann in May 1960 and his execution in 1962.

The senate's condemnation of anti-Semitism (September 1961) was not backed by any law-enforcement action, and even the outlawing of anti-Semitic organizations in May 1963 and especially November 1964 failed to wipe out anti-Semitism.

[1966: Nationalist revolution and government under General Carlos Onganía - anti-Semitic activity - Jewish activity]

After the revolution of June 1966, in which General Carlos Onganía seized power, anti-Semitic organizations became adherents of the new regime, and by 1967, despite the placatory declarations by the government, Argentina was a center of anti-Semitic activity. Of the 313 anti-Semitic incidents in the world recorded in 1967, 142 occurred in Argentina. Starting in the late 1950s, and particularly between 1963 and 1965, the anti-Semites were aided by representatives of the *Arab League in Buenos Aires. The penetration of anti-Semitism into the working classes - and especially the Peronist trade unions - was particularly significant as the Jewish working class had all but disappeared.

The increase in anti-Semitism heightened D.A.I.A.'s (col. 416)

activity, which reached a peak on June 28, 1962, with a general protest strike by Jewish merchants and businessmen. The annual ceremony commemorating the *Warsaw Ghetto uprising (with 20,000 participants in 1963 and 25,000 participants in 1968) organized by the D.A.I.A. gained a special significance and topicality.

[Some more Jewish organizations in Argentina 1946-1968]

In June 1948 the Instituto Judío Argentino de Cultura e Información [[Jewish Argentinian Institute for Culture and Information]] was established as a public relations organ for the Jewish community.

In public life, the process of unification continued after 1948 and was greatly influenced by the establishment of the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel. The Chevra Keduscha Aschkenazi [["Holy Ashkenazi Society"]] became a central kehillah ([[community]], see *A.M.I.A.) dominated by the [[racist]] Zionist parties, which were themselves organized into the Organización Sionista Argentina [["Zionist Argentinian Organization"]]. In 1952 a Va'ad ha-Kehillot [[regional council of a community]], established through the initiative of A.M.I.A., united about 140 communities. Its objective was to provide help in improving religious and educational services.

With the establishment of the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel the Sephardi community also deepened  its interest in [[racist Herzl]] Zionism, organized its own fund-raising campaign, and worked in closer cooperation with the Ashkenazim through the Va'ad ha-Kehillot. The Sephardim began to form a central organization to service their communities (1965) and even formed their own Zionist movement [[racist according to the Herzl program]].

[Jewish schools in Argentina are more and more racist Zionist - emigration to racist Zionist Herzl Israel (aliyah), to the "USA", and Jews come back from racist Zionist Herzl Israel]

The Jewish educational system gradually became Israel- and Hebrew-oriented, and all Jewish organizations, including those that stress their Argentinian character, actively identified with the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel. For the large majority of Argentinian Jews identification with the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel constituted the basic means of Jewish identity, despite the fact that, from the beginning of the Perón regime, marked cultural and ethnic heterogeneity decreased and Argentinian nationalism grew.

The clearest expression of this identification is the achievement of the pioneering youth movements and the trend of emigration to [[racist Zionist Herzl]] Israel. Beginning with a few pioneers who moved to Israel in the pre-World War II period and a score more in 1945, aliyah increased after the establishment of the State of Israel and led to the founding of eight new kibbutzim (the first of which was *Mefalsim in 1949). Smaller groups joined at least 15 other kibbutzim, while other groups founded and joined moshavim [[worker's settlements]].

A large number of economic enterprises and investment companies in Israel were also founded by Argentinians. By 1960 about 4,500 Argentinians had moved to Israel: aliyah was greatest during Argentina's political and economic crisis of 1962-63 and after the *Six-Day War. The Argentinian Jewish community expressed its support for aliyah by granting special sums of money to the immigrants through A.M.I.A. Nonetheless, the number of Jews who settled in Israel was less than the estimated natural increase of Argentinian Jewry and does not account for all Jewish emigrants from Argentina. In 1962-63 about 2,000 Argentinian Jews emigrated to the U.S. alone. In addition, difficulties of integration and absorption resulted in the return of a considerable number of Argentinians from Israel.

[[The same also happened with Italien Jews returning to Italy again]].

[[Supplement: Zionist Herzl state Israel means an eternal war
The fact that the State of Israel has the Herzl book "The Jewish State" as it's ideological base which says that all Arabs can be driven away like the natives in the "USA" is never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica. This book provokes harsh anti-Semitism on the whole world. It can be assumed that many Jews from Argentina came back because they did not accept the Jewish racism against Arabs, did not accept the Jewish Herzl army philosophy to kill Arabs, and did not accept the 3 years military service for men and women. This would be an research field]].

[Split Jewry in Argentina between racist Herzl Zionists and communists]

After the establishment of the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel, estrangement increased between the [[racist Herzl]] Zionists and the [[Stalin Gulag]] communists, and in 1952, when the latter gave their unmitigated support to the [[Stalin Gulag]] Soviet government during the *Slansky Trials and the *"Doctor's Plot", the ties between the two groups were severed completely. The [[Stalin Gulag]] communists continued to develop their own institutions and educational system, press, and the I.F.T. theater, while disassociating themselves from the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel. Their negative attitude toward [[racist Zionist Herzl]] Israel grew stronger during the *Sinai Campaign and was maintained during the Six-Day War. But as a result, a considerable number of communists and their sympathizers seceded from their camp and joined [[racist Herzl]] Zionist groups. (col. 417)

[Integration of the Jews in the Argentinian everyday life - mixed marriages - universities - confraternidad]

Despite the comprehensive character of organized Jewish life and the existence of anti-Semitism, Jews have been able to integrate. Many distinguished themselves in the arts and sciences and some even attained important positions in political life. Two Jews became governors of provinces, and one, David Blejer, filled the post of minister of labour and social welfare. Assimilation of Argentinian Jewry has increased in the last decade [[in the 1960s]].

The rate of mixed marriages has risen, although there are no exact statistics on this point, and Argentinian Jewish university youth participated more widely in non-Jewish activities (most of them left-wing) than in organized Jewish life. The Confraternidad Judeo-Cristiana [[Jewish-Christian Fraternization]], an organization of Catholics, Protestants, and Jews aimed at improving Judeo-Christian relations, was founded in 1958. After the Vatican Council II, the Catholic church established an Ecumenical Office, which, together with other groups, maintains a religious dialogue with certain Jewish sectors, the benefits of which are limited both in the Jewish and Gentile communities.

[H.A.]> (col. 418)

[[The persecution,  expulsion and partly extermination of the natives in Argentina is never mentioned in the Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

[Population figures]

<The emergence of Argentinian Jewry as the second largest Jewish community in the western hemisphere is a 20th-century development. The following table shows the evolution of the Jewish population since 1869, when the first census was taken:

Table 1. Total Jewish population in Argentina, 1869 to 1968
Total population
Jewish population
[[counted by census]]
Estimated Jewish population
Percent of the Jewish population
3,954,911xxx 6,085xxxxxxxxx
1.0% [?]xxx
7,885,273xxx -
100-117,000xxxxxxxx 1.2-1.4%xxxxxx
15,893,827xxx 249,330xxxxxxxxx 265-275,000xxxxxxxx 1.6-1.7%xxxxxx
20,008,945xxx 275,913xxxxxxxxx 400-450,000xxxxxxxx 1.9-2.2%xxxxxx
from: Argentina; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 3, col. 418

[Total of Jews in Argentina: The errors of the census of 1960 - many more Jews estimated]

The census figures contain a large margin of error and must be augmented. Thus, the first census, held on Oct. 29, 1960, in addition to accounting for about 276,000 Jews, also revealed around 930,000 persons who declared themselves as not belonging to a religious denomination or did not specify their religion. The latter group probably contains a large proportion of Jews.

Moreover, the census was held on the eve of the Day of Atonement, and a considerable number of Jews could not fill in the returns. Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine with any degree of precision the margin of underestimation. The present [[1971]] size of the Jewish population of Argentina is  variously reported to be between 400,000 and 450,000, or even 500,000, but all these figures are based on highly conjectural estimates.

It has been estimated that about 90% of the present Jewish population under 40 years of age is Argentinian-born. Among those aged 40 and over, 72% are foreign born, 17% have one foreign-born parent, and 8% are Argentinian-born. Some 85% of the total Jewish population are of Ashkenazi origin [[from Western and Central Europa and from Russia with white skin]], and 15% are of Sephardi origin [[from Southern Europe, Asia and North Afrika with brown skin]].

Very little is known about the basic demographic characteristics of Argentinian Jewry. Over the last few years, the Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales [[Social Investigation Institute]] of A.M.I.A. has published a number of valuable statistical studies (see bibliography), but the material collected on the pattern of Jewish marriages and on Jewish mortality in Buenos Aires has not yet been properly analyzed and is not sufficiently comprehensive to allow for valid generalizations.> (col. 418)

[Jews in Argentina: distribution in the provinces]

<The postwar censuses (1947 and 1960) show the following distribution:

Table. Jewish population in the provinces of Argentina 1947 and 1960
Unaugmented census figure which can only be regarded as a rough indication of the geographic distribution trends.
Jewish population 1947
Percent distribution
Jewish population 1960
Percent distribution
Federal Capital
66.9%xxxxxxxxx 183,547xxxxxxxxx 66.6%xxxxxx
Buenos Aires
32,725xxxxxxxxx 13.1%xxxxxxxxx 47,086xxxxxxxxx 17.1%xxxxxx
Santa Fé
16,724xxxxxxxxx 6.9%xxxxxxxxx 14,152xxxxxxxxx 5.1%xxxxxx
Entre Ríos
11,876xxxxxxxxx 4.9%xxxxxxxxx 8,229xxxxxxxxx 3.0%xxxxxx
5,925xxxxxxxxx 2.3%xxxxxxxxx 8,639xxxxxxxxx 3.1%xxxxxx
2,787xxxxxxxxx 1.0%xxxxxxxxx 2,897xxxxxxxxx 1.0%xxxxxx
2,744xxxxxxxxx 1.0%xxxxxxxxx 2,066xxxxxxxxx 0,8%xxxxxx
2,439xxxxxxxxx 0.9%xxxxxxxxx 2,767xxxxxxxxx 1.0%xxxxxx
La Pampa
1,408xxxxxxxxx 0.5%xxxxxxxxx 704xxxxxxxxx 0.2%xxxxxx
1,377xxxxxxxxx 0.5%xxxxxxxxx 1,296xxxxxxxxx 0.4%xxxxxx
5,135xxxxxxxxx 2.0%xxxxxxxxx 4,530xxxxxxxxx 1.7%xxxxxx
from: Argentina; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 3, col. 419

Two-thirds of the Jews in Argentina are concentrated in Buenos Aires, which, together with the outlying suburbs, has an estimated Jewish population of some 350,000-380,000. Other important Jewish communities are found in Rosario (15,000), Córdoba (8,000), and Santa Fé (4,000). Entre Ríos [[province]], which at the turn of the century was the home of the majority of the Jewish population, now includes only about 3% of the total Jewish population.

[P.G.]> (col. 419)

[Jewish economy and Social Stratification 1946-1968: Banks and cooperatives]

<The economic development of the Jewish population in the post-World War II era is also reflected in the considerable progress made by their financial institutions. Though the largest Jewish bank, the Banco Israelita del Río de la Plata [[Israelite Río de la Plata Bank]], closed as a result of a financial scandal in 1963, other banks, such as the Banco Comercial de Buenos Aires [[Commercial Bank of Buenos Aires]] and the Banco Mercantil de Argentina [[Mercantile Bank of Argentina]], which service the general community, gained in status and the Cooperatives de Crédito [[Loan Cooperatives]] also prospered.

These cooperatives, which spread throughout Argentina, expanded especially among the Jewish population and in the late 1960s had many thousands of members - merchants, farmers, middle-class industrialists, and even salaried workers. The large income from the cooperatives' financial activities, which in fact include normal banking operations, is devoted largely to public and social purposes such as financing Jewish schools, cultural centers, and Jewish political activity, considerably influencing Jewish communal institutions.

Thus Argentinian Jewry was greatly alarmed in 1966 when General Onganía's revolutionary government intended to limit or abolish the operations of the credit associations.


Jewish companies, often very large ones, existed within the new industries after World War II to supply the local market. Jews also engaged in all aspects of the building industry (a considerable number of the skyscrapers or torres characteristic of the 1960s were erected by Jewish companies), played a significant role in the commerce that developed around the new branches of industry, and diversified their positions in the liberal professions.> (col. 420)

[Jewish agricultural settlements are not so Jewish any more]

<In the succeeding period [[since 1945]], however, more families left the land, and in 1962 there were fewer settlers than there had been in 1898 (5,907 compared to 6,755 at the earlier date). The families who remained in 1962 were smaller in size than those of 1898 (an average of less than three members as against over five to a family  at the earlier date) and belonged to an older age group.

On the other hand, the number of non-Jews in the colonies was almost double that of the Jewish colonists (about 10,220). In 1964 the number of Jewish farmers who lived on and cultivated their land in the colonies was estimated at 782 families. The overall territory under Jewish ownership was 1,121,950 acres (450,000 hectares). Despite the fact that there were Jewish farmers who were well established on their soil, especially in the south of Buenos Aires province, the future of the Jewish colonies was uncertain in the late 1960s.> (col. 429)

[[Expulsion and partly destruction of Argentinian natives is never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

[Jewish agricultural cooperatives]

<All the cooperatives do their purchasing, modernize production methods, and market their products through the Fraternidad Agraria [["Agrarian Fraternity"]]. The great strides made by it are revealed by the following statistics: in 1967 the cooperatives' purchases reached $1,640,594 and the grain transactions (50,598 tons) totaled a sum of $2,676,705. The main grains harvested by the Jewish cooperatives were wheat (44,464 tons), sorghum (4,468 tons), and sunflower (1,237 tons), whose cultivation was introduced to Argentina by the Jewish colonists of the Mauricio colony.

[[...]] The cooperatives Granjeros Unidos (United Farmers, in Rivera), El Progreso [["The Progress"]] (in Bernasconi), and La Mutua Agrícola [[Agrarian Professional Association]] (in Moisésville) are now provided with silos equipped with the most modern facilities to assure the greatest efficiency in handling, sorting, and storing grain. In Dominguez a vegetable oils factory named after Ingeniero [[the engineer]] Miguel Sajaroff is operated by Fondo Comunal [[Communal Fund]] together with the Federación Entrerriana de Cooperativas [[?]]. It converts linen grains collected by the zone cooperatives into oil and by-products. [[...]]

The impulse given by the Jewish colonists to the agrarian cooperative movement was fecund. In 1937 only 3% of the country's producers were integrated into cooperatives; in 1965 the number of farmers who sold their products through cooperative increased to 63%. The highest official representative (col. 432)

body of the Argentinian agricultural and cattle-breeding movement is the Confederación Intercooperativa Agropecuaria Cooperativa (CONINAGRO) [[Confederation of Intercooperative Agrarian Cooperatives]]. The Fraternidad Agraria [["Agrarian Fraternity"]] constitutes a part of it and is one of the supporters of the Argentinian Agrarian Cooperative Bank, founded in 1965, which began its activities by extending credit to the sum of $3,257,142 to its member cooperatives.

[L.SCH.]> (col. 433)

[Independent Jewish agricultural settlements - results by the agricultural settlements: new towns]

<In 1964 the number of agricultural settlers outside the ICA framework was estimated at 237. Despite the fact that by the 1960s the number of families whose source of income was the land had fallen to under 2,000, the large majority of whom were not living on their land, Jewish agricultural settlement had many positive achievements. Due to it a chain of small towns sprang up at the edge of the colonies as centers for trade and small industry (see map), new crops were introduced, modern methods of cultivation were implemented, and the cooperative movement was developed. Agricultural settlements served as absorption centers for new immigrants and created areas of predominantly Jewish population from which many of the leaders and public figures of Argentinian Jewry emerged.

[H.A.]> (col. 431)

[Changing class structure of Argentinian Jewry according to the development of professions]

<Economic changes naturally altered the social and economic class structure of Argentinian Jewry. No comprehensive research has been carried out in this field; but research conducted by Eduardo Rogovsky and Abraham Monk which is based upon 1,725 young couples who in 1961-62 were married in a religious ceremony in Greater Buenos Aires found a marked movement toward white-collar occupations and indicate that the Jewish population belongs mainly to the middle and upper classes.

The status of Jews in the general population has been exemplified by a census taken of the Jewish community in Quilmes, near Buenos Aires, in 1968. There were 1,169 Jews out of a total population of 317,783. In the economically viable portion of the Jewish population, only 26.7% were salaried workers, of whom 3.5% were laborers and the remainder were white-collar workers. The percentage of salaried workers in the general population was 81.2%, of whom at least half were labourers. On the other hand, 70.9% of the economically viable Jewish population were employers and self-employed, while the parallel figure for the general population was only 16.3%.

Poverty has not been eradicated among Argentinian Jewry, and A.M.I.A. alone spent some 6-7% of its budget in 1965-67 on supporting the poor (apart from the aid extended by other charitable associations). Nevertheless, Jewish relationship with the Argentinian proletariat is becoming increasingly that of the employer with his employee. Along with this, Jews are to a great extent absent from the upper and ruling echelons of society, and their absence in these domains is an important factor in determining the future of Argentinian Jewry.

[H.A.]> (col. 421)

[Religious life: New Jewish religous immigrants]

<The third period (1939-68) was one of a limited religious renaissance, supported by a new wave of religious immigrants. New types of talmudei torah and yeshivot [[Jewish religious schools]], both Ashkenazi and Sephardi, were founded. The most notable (col. 421)

among them is the Yeshivah Gevohah of the kehillah [[community]], five graduates of which were ordained in Israel up to 1968. During this period various religious organizations, both political and apolitical, such as Mizrachi, Yavnhe, Agudat Israel, and the Sephardi movement Shuvah Israel, were created. The rabbinate of the kehillah was institutionalized and developed during this period.

In 1966, Rabbi David Dahana, former chief chaplain of the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] Israel Air Force, assumed the post of av bet din [[chairman of the Jewish court]] of the rabbinate of A.M.I.A.

Conservative Judaism, represented only by the Congregación Israelita de la República Argentina (CIRA) [[Israelite Congregation of the Argentinian Republic]], expanded during this period, when several German-speaking Conservative congregations were established. In 1962, as a result of a schism in CIRA, the Conservative community Bet-El was established under the guidance of Rabbi Marshall Meyer. Earlier that year, the Seminario Rabinico Latino-Americano [[Latin American Rabbinical Seminary]] was established, offering a preparatory course for advanced studies at the *Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York.

From 1961 CIRA and later also Bet-El maintained annual "Ramah" summer camps as well as other youth activities. In 1964 Reform Judaism established its first congregation, Emanuel, in Buenos Aires.

In 1968 Argentina had three Reform, seven Conservative, and 15 Orthodox rabbis, ten of whom were Ashkenazi and five Sephardi; four other rabbis were practicing temporarily in Buenos Aires. This staff of spiritual leaders is insufficient in view of the size of the Jewish community and its dispersal throughout the country. There are communities that have never had a rabbi nor been visited by one.

Circumcisions and weddings are performed by laymen, and very little religious observance is possible. Remedying this (col. 422)

situation is the most important task undertaken by the Va'ad ha-Kehillot [[regional council of a community]].> (col. 423)

[Cultural life: A.M.I.A., racist Herzl Zionism, and Hebrew are dominating more and more]

<[[The newspaper "Di Prese"]]: Since the end of World War II and the establishment of the [[racist Zionist Herzl]] State of Israel, the paper has also reinforced its ties with  [[racist Herzl]] Zionism.> (col. 423)

<With the organization and strengthening of A.M.I.A., most of the Jewish community's cultural activities have been concentrated under its auspices. A.M.I.A. also subsidizes the activities of other organizations and publishing houses. A large number of books on Jewish subjects (particularly in Yiddish) are published in Argentina, but only a minority of them are written by local authors. There is also a considerable number of monthlies and weeklies published primarily by various political parties and economic, social, and philanthropic organizations. The Jewish daily press played a decisive role in the consolidation of the community and is still influential in Jewish life. Its influence is decreasing, however, mainly because of the estrangement of Jewish youth from the Yiddish language. Efforts to establish a Jewish daily paper in Spanish have not yet achieved success, primarily for financial reasons. The Juedische Wochenschau [[Jewish Weekly]], a German-language weekly with a [[racist]] Zionist orientation, ceased publication in 1968 with the death of its editor, Hardy Swarsensky. (col. 424)

Although Jewish culture in Argentina is both rich and diversified, it is nonetheless facing a crisis. Cultural activities reach only a small portion of the overall Jewish population, basically because they are mostly held in Yiddish. The language problem is not the only obstacle, however. Jewish youth in Argentina are becoming increasingly alienated from Jewish affairs, and their lack of interest affects the future of the cultural scene. In 1968 there was no Yiddish theater performing on a regular basis (in 1939 there were three); individual performances did take place with the support of A.M.I.A., but their quality was not on the level of its earlier years.

Instances of original and creative works in any of the arts are rare. There has been a rise in cultural activities in Hebrew in the last few years, especially since the establishment of the Israel-Argentina Cultural Institute, which deals mainly in arranging cultural exchanges between Argentina and Israel. In the provinces the situation is even less encouraging, as these areas are totally dependent upon events in the capital.

[SH.R.]> (col. 425)

[[Prosecution, expulsion and partly extermination of the primary nations in Argentina is never mentioned in the Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

[Racist Zionist schools - anti-Zionist schools - numbers - problems]

<In 1957, after the Va'ad ha-Kehillot [[regional council of the congregation]] was formed, the Va'ad ha-Hinnukh [[education committee]] of A.M.I.A. and the Va'ad ha-Hinnukh ha-Rashi merged to form the central education committee, with which all Jewish schools, except those belonging to the Communists, most of the Sephardim, and certain other communities (such as those of German origin), are affiliated.

Until recently most Jewish schools in Argentina provided only supplementary education for pupils attending non-Jewish schools. In 1966, when the school day was lengthened in many government schools, more thought was given to the establishment of Jewish day schools, a few of which already existed. The Jewish day schools were recognized as private schools and taught both general and Jewish subjects. The budget required for building and maintaining such schools, however, was correspondingly greater, and when public funds could not be acquired, parents of modest means were not able to afford to send their children to these schools.

In 1968 the Jewish educational system of Greater Buenos Aires comprised the following: 5,065 children aged between two and five in 51 kindergartens; 8,900 pupils in 58 (col. 425)

elementary schools (seven grades), eight of which were day schools and the rest supplementary schools; and 1,675 pupils in 13 high schools, four of which were yeshivot [[Jewish religious schools]]. In the rest of Argentina, there were 969 children in 33 kindergartens; 2,787 pupils in 52 elementary schools; and 633 pupils in eight high schools. These figures arrived at a total of 20,033 students in Jewish schools throughout Argentina.

Although the schools were divided according to various political trends, all the programs stressed studies about modern [[racist Zionist Herzl]] Israel and the development of Jewish national consciousness.

[[Supplement: This "consciousness" is a trap: The Zionist Herzl program means to drive all Arabs away like the natives in the "USA" had been driven away. The "Jewish national consciousness" is an eternal war program never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica, with a "Gretar Israel" between Nile river and Euphrates river according to First Mose chapter 15 phrase 18. Therefore anti-Semitism all over the world and above all in all Arab countries is rising and will never stop, until this Herzl book is prohibited and until Israel will come to human rights together with the Arab states]].

Most schools taught both Yiddish and Hebrew, although with considerably differing emphasis. Teachers were trained in seminaries representing the various ideological trends.

From 1944 A.M.I.A. had its own central teachers' seminary. The Jewish [[Stalin Gulag]] Communists, who did not belong to the central education committee [[and who were anti-Zionist]], had several kindergartens, five elementary schools, and two high schools. About 900 pupils attended these schools, where neither Hebrew nor religious subjects were taught.

In the field of higher education, Ha-Midrashah ha-Ivrit (Hebrew Seminary), which had 170 pupils in 1967, mainly trained high school teachers. From 1962 A.M.I.A. and Hebraica ran a school for youth leaders on the level of an institution of higher learning.

Despite the fact that the Jewish educational system in Argentina was a source of pride for Argentinian Jewry, it contained certain defects. Although Jewish education was available to large numbers of students, it catered to only an estimated 14-18% of school-age children. The increasing number of dropouts each year is illustrated by the fact that in 1967, in all the schools run by the Va'ad ha-Hinnukh [[Education Committee]] in Buenos Aires, only 560 pupils finished elementary school and 126 graduated from high school. Other defects included division on a political basis, lack of suitable educational material, and conflicts over the program (such as the relative place of Yiddish and Hebrew). These and other problems have been regularly raised at special conferences to debate educational problems, as well as at the meetings of the Va'ad ha-Kehillot [[regional council of a community]] and A.M.I.A.

It is estimated that only about 12% of Argentina's Jewish youth are active in community organizations. The alienation from Jewish life is largely due to the lack of large-scale Jewish education and the consequent lack of positive Jewish identification and interest in community issues, as well as the opportunity to express their social and political unrest in the universities. A smaller number of youth are organized in the pioneering [[racist]] Zionist youth movements than in the general Jewish youth organization united in the Confederación Juvenil Judeo Argentina [[Jewish Argentinian Youth Confederation]], which represents Argentinian Jewish youth locally, nationally, and internationally and publishes the bimonthly Tiempo de Jerusalén [["Jerusalem Times"]]. See also *Education, Argentina.

[R.P.R.]> (col. 426)

<Ties with [[racist Zionist anti-Muslim CIA Herzl]] Israel.

Argentina has always had a significant place in Israel's foreign policy as a prominent Latin American country and a country with a very large Jewish community. From 1947, when Argentina abstained from voting for the UN Partition Plan for Palestine, relations were marked by steady progress. Argentina recognized [[racist Zionist anti-Muslim CIA Herzl]] Israel on Feb. 14, 1949, and diplomatic missions were established in Buenos Aires and Tel Aviv in August and September 1949, respectively.

Argentina's position varies on a number of issues affecting Israel. In the annually recurrent UN debates on Palestine refugees, Argentina has for years voted with Israel against attempts to appoint a UN property custodian, on the ground that it would be an unacceptable interference with national sovereignty. Following the Six-Day War, Argentina was in the forefront of the Latin American (col. 426)

[[Human rights for Palestinians and propaganda against Arabs in racist Herzl Zionist Israel are never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

nations that opposed Soviet and Arab efforts in the Emergency Session of the UN General Assembly to bring about an unconditional evacuation of the Israel-held territories. On the other hand, she has consistently favored the internationalization of Jerusalem, and after the Six-Day War voted against the municipal reunification of the city.

In 1960 the capture of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina caused a temporary crisis in relations, which returned to normal after some months. Commercial treaties exist between the two countries, the trade balance being overwhelmingly in favor of Argentina (due to meat exports that vary from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000 a year).

In 1957 a cultural exchange agreement was signed. An Israel-Argentina Cultural Institute exists in Buenos Aires, and Argentina House was established in Jerusalem in 1967. Technical cooperation developed in the 1960s between the two countries in such fields as rural planning in semi-arid zones and the uses of water. Israel's progress has aroused considerable interest in Argentina, with the result that a number of Argentinian leaders have visited [[racist Zionist anti-Muslim CIA Herzl]] Israel. Public opinion in Argentina's mass media has been favorable to [[racist Zionist]] Israel on most outstanding questions.

[E.B.-H.]> (col. 427)

[[Mass expulsion of Palestinians and destruction of complete Palestinian villages and Palestinian towns in Israel is never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

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Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 415-416
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 415-416
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 417-418
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 417-418
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 419-420
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 419-420
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 421-422
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 421-422
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 423-424
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 423-424
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 425-426
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 425-426
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 427-428
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 427-428
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 429-430
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 429-430
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 431-432
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 431-432
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3,
                        col. 433
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Argentina, vol. 3, col. 433

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