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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Chile 02: 1945-1970

Jewish organizations and cultural life - Herzl Israel

              Judaica (1971): Chile, vol.5, col.463, B'ne Jisroel
              synagogue, Santiago
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Chile, vol.5, col.463, B'ne Jisroel synagogue, Santiago

from: Chile; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 5

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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Contemporary Period.

Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Chile, vol.
                            5, col. 462, map of the Jewish communities
                            in 1970
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Chile, vol. 5, col. 462, map of the Jewish communities in 1970

[[There are indications about Jewish research about natives in this article. But there is no indication that natives have certain rights]].

[Political life]

[Places of Jewish settlements]

There were about 30,000 Jews in Chile in 1970; yet a poll conducted in 1965 among the Jewish organizations found only 8,450 affiliated members. Over 90% of Chilean Jewry live in Santiago, but organized communities exist in Valparaiso, Vina del Mar, Concepción (col. 465)

Temuco, Valdivia, Coquimbo, Ovalle, Copapó, La Serena, and Arica. Most belong to the middle and upper-middle classes and engage in commerce, industry, and the free professions. Jewish communal life in cities other than Santiago generally centers on one or two organizations whereas in Santiago it revolves around a variety of frameworks.

[Anti-Semitic and Nazi organizations are both legal in Chile]

[[In 1944 and 1945 some 1,000 Nazi Germans fled from Europe to South America, also to Chile. So, Nazis and Jews were meeting in Chile once again, as in other South American countries]].

The Comité Representativo [["Representative Committee"]] is an umbrella organization combating anti-Semitism, which has not disappeared in Chile. Nazi organizations and their newspapers are legal and since 1948 became stronger with the help of the numerous and economically and politically influential Arab population. The Federación Sionista [["Zionist Federation"]] channels [[racist Zionist]] pro-Israel activities and also serves as an umbrella organization for the various [[racist]] Zionist parties and organizations, simultaneously supporting local educational and cultural activities. The oldest of the community organizations, the Círculo Israelita [["Israelite Circle"]], owns the block of principal buildings of the community. The Ashkenazi kehillah [[congregation]] (previously Jevra Kedisha) tries to follow in the footsteps of the Ashkenazi community of *Buenos Aires (see *A.M.I.A.).

Sociedad Cultural Israelita B'ne Jisroel, the congregation of German Jews, and the Comunidad Israelita Sefardi [["Sephardi Israelite Community"]], which since 1935 unites all the Sephardim, offer their respective communities all the communal services. Aside from these there are various Landsmannschaften [["territorial associations"]]: Polish Jews (founded 1932), Hungarian Jews (founded 1937), and others, active particularly in cultural and social fields.

[Further Jewish organizations in Chile]

Among the fraternal and women's organizations are WIZO (founded 1926), and the Organización Feminina Pioneras [["Women Pioneer Organization"]] (founded 1948), which organizes hundreds of women not only in the area of aid to [[Herzl]] Israel but also in local education. Four [[racist Zionist]] B'nai B'rith lodges in Santiago, one in Valparaíso, and one in Concepción are also active. Bikkur Holim continues to be the principal welfare organization, and the Policlínica likewise continues to serve the general community. In addition, a home for the aged (Hogar Israelita de Ancianos [["Israelite Old Age Home"]]) was founded in 1951. Activities in sport and culture are organized around the Club Atlético Israelita Macabí, active since 1948 and, in particular, the Estado Israelita, which from 1952 united a large part of the Jewish community in cultural and sports activities in luxurious buildings in the suburbs of Santiago.

[Cultural life]

[Jewish schools in Chile since 1914]

Jewish education in Chile, which began in a small school established in Santiago in 1914, is under the supervision of the Education Committee. This committee operated from 1944, and in 1967, within the framework of the three schools in Santiago, there were 1,217 students, and 140 in Valparaíso. These are comprehensive day schools, in which even the secular subjects are taught in Hebrew. There is also a Teachers' Seminary, and in 1965 a seminar on Jewish art was introduced at the University of Chile, which laid the groundwork for a Department of Jewish Studies officially opened in 1968 under the chairmanship of the anthropologist (col. 466)

Bernardo Berdichevsky. In the area of informal education, [[racist]] Zionist youth movements such as *Hashomer ha-Za'ir, *Betar, Ha-Noar Ha-Ziyyoni are active. The Centro Universitario Sionista [["Zionist University Center"]] (founded 1950) attracts over 700 Jewish university students (according to 1965 estimate). But all these educational facilities reach only 20-30% of Chilean Jewish youth.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                Chile, vol.5, col.466, B'ne Jisroel synagogue, Santiago,
                Innenraum mit Versammlung
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Chile, vol.5, col.466, B'ne Jisroel synagogue,
Santiago, Innenraum mit Versammlung

[Jewish press and writings in Chile]

The Jewish press in Chile began to appear as early as 1919 with Nuestro Ideal [[Our Ideal]] and Renascimiento [[Rebirth]]. In 1970 the following papers appeared: Mundo Judío [["Jewish World"]], a weekly (founded 1935) published by the [[racist]] Zionist Federation; and Dos Yidishe Vort [["The Yiddish Word"]] (founded in 1937), a Yiddish-Spanish weekly supported by the kehillah [[congregation]] and the Círculo [["Circle"]]. In the literary field, achievements are disappointing; however, special mention should be made of the historical writings of Guenther Boehm and Guenther Friedland, the poems of Ana Albala de Levy, and the writings (in Yiddish) of Jacobo *Pilovsky.

Jews in Public Life.

Some Jews, e.g., Natalio Berman (Communist deputy), Angel Faivovich (radical senator), Jacobo Schaulsohn (radical deputy), and Volodia Teitelboim (Communist senator), have participated in the political life of the country. From 1966, only Teitelboim remained active; however, he had no connection with Jewish life or its problems. In the field of science, Alejandro Lipschuetz' studies on South American Indians gained international recognition. Among the lawyers in prominent positions are David Stichkin, twice rector of the University of Concepción, and Gil Sinay, president of the Representative Committee of the Jewish Community of Chile (1968). Efrain Friedmann, director of the Chilean Atomic Research Committee; Jaime Wisnaik, director of the Department of Engineering of the Catholic University of Santiago; and Grete Mostny, director of the Museum of Natural History, are well known in the field of science.

In music and the arts, Victor Tevah, ex-director of the National Symphony Orchestra, composer Leon Schidlowsky, ex-director of the Institute for the Musical Extension of the State University, and the painters Dinora Doudtchitzky, Kurt Herdan, Francisco Otta, and Abraham Freifeld stand out.

[G.B. / H.A.] (col. 467)

Relations with [[racist Zionist]] Israel.

[[Zionist policy is bribe policy in the UN. About 50% of the state's institutions of the "USA" are kept by Jewish Zionists and by this there is "US" protection for racist Zionist Israel in the UN]].

Chilean public opinion has often shown a marked interest and sympathy for [[racist]] Zionism and the [[racist Zionist]] State of Israel. In 1945 a Pro-Palestine Committee was founded in Santiago, and its prominent member, Senator Gabriel Gonzalez Videla (later president of Chile), was among those who sponsored the organization of the International Christian Conference for Palestine, which took place in Washington in 1945. In spite of his past record of goodwill toward Jewish aspirations, as president Videla gave in to the internal pressure of the Arab community (100,000 citizens of Arab descent live in Chile and are known for their financial and political influence) and instructed his delegation to the UN General Assembly to abstain from voting on the resolution to partition Palestine in 1947. Senator Humberto Alvarez, second-ranking member of this delegation, resigned in protest against that decision.

This disappointment at a critical moment did not affect the cordial relations between Chile and [[racist Zionist]] Israel, however, and Chile recognized Israel in February 1949 and supported her admission to the UN. In 1950 a nonresident minister opened the legation of the State of [[racist Zionist]] Israel in Santiago, and Chile established its diplomatic representation in Israel in 1957. In November 1958 both raised their missions to the status of embassies, and in March 1965 the Embassy of Chile was transferred from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

Chile abstained from voting on the UN resolution in favour to the internationalization of Jerusalem (col. 467)

(Dec. 9, 1949) but voted against the reunification of Jerusalem after the *Six-Day War (July 14, 1967). In the General Assembly of the UN (July 4, 1967) it gave its full support to the resolution of the Latin American Bloc in the aftermath of the Six-Day War. The Chilean-Israel Institute for Culture, inspired by Alvarez and Carlos Vergara Bravo, is known for its diverse activities.

Commercial relations are not impressive, showing a total export of $69,000 from Chile to Israel and an import from Israel of $124,000 (statistics of 1967). In the framework of the Israel government's international scheme, an  agricultural mission from Israel is active in Chile in the fields of settlement and marketing. The team, sponsored by an agreement between the Organization of American States and Israel for rural development, cooperates closely with CORA (Corporación de la Reforma Agraria [["Agrarian Reform Corporation"]]) and participates in rural project planning. The Israel company *Tahal is employed in the study of geological and hydraulic resources, as well as in rural development schemes in Chile.

[[The natives of Chile, the Mapuches, are never mentioned in this article, resp. it can be admitted that these Jewish Zionist activities in Chile are even fighting the rights and above all the territorial rights of the Mapuches]].

[SH. ER.]> (col. 468)

[[The Palestinians who are driven away within the Herzl program of the book "The Jewish State" by the Jewish army of Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel since 1948 and 1967 and the atomic bombs of Herzl Israel which are haeded against the Arabs are not mentioned]].


-- Roth, Marranos, 163-5, 259, 398-9
-- H.C.Lea; Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies (1908)
-- G. Boehm: Los Judíos en Chile durante la Colonia (1948)
-- idem: Nuevos antecedentes para una historia de los Judíos en Chile colonial (1963)
-- idem: Piratas Judíos en Chile (1945)
-- C.J. Larrain de Castro: Los Judíos en Chile colonial (1943)
-- A. Fuenzalida Grandón: Apellidos Judíos en la historia de Chile (1944)

-- J. Beller: Jews in Latin America (1969), 144-60
-- J. Shatzky: Yidishe Yishuvim in Lateyn Amerike (1952), 129-42
-- Asociación Filantrópica Israelita Buenos Aires: Zehn Jahre Aufbauarbeit in Suedamerika (Sp. and Ger., 1943), 230-49
-- M. Sendery: Historia de la Colectividad Israelita de Chile ... 1956
-- A. Salpeter, in: Bi-Tefuzot ha-Golah, 5 (Spring 1963), 97-99
-- G. Boehm, in: Judaica, no. 154 (1946), 151-3
-- A. Monk and J. Isaacson (eds.): Comunidades Judías de Latinoamérica (1968), 71-81> (col. 468)

Encyclopaedia Judaica: Chile, sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Chile, vol.
                          5, col. 465-466
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Chile, vol. 5, col. 465-466
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Chile, vol.
                            5, col. 467-468
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Chile, vol. 5, col. 467-468


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